The Garra species (Cyprinidae) of the Main Nile basin with description of three new species

Moritz T., Straube N., Neumann D.

Date de parution: décembre 2019
Volume: 43
Number: 4
Pagination: 311-329

Corresponding author: Timo Moritz,

How to cite: Moritz, T., Straube, N., & Neumann, D. (2019). The Garra species (Cyprinidae) of the Main Nile basin with description of three new species. Cybium, 43(4): 311-329.


Five Garra species are recognized for the Main Nile basin. Garra vinciguerrae is confirmed as valid species. Three species are new to science, Garra napata sp. nov., G. jamila sp. nov. and G. sannarensis sp. nov. A fourth species, Garra sp. “White Nile”, is known from only a single museum specimen in rather poor condition. Garra napata sp. nov., described from the area of the first and fourth Nile cataract, and G. jamila sp. nov. described from the Atbara River at Khashm el Girba are distinguished from all other African Garra species by a scaleless area reaching beyond the dorsal fin insertion, reducing the number of scale rows between the dorsal fin origin and the lateral line to 1-2.5 in G. napata and 2-2.5 in G. jamila (vs. 3 or more in all currently known African Garra species). Both species differ from each other in colouration and oral-disc morphology: the vividly coloured G. jamila has a well-developed disc [type C] with prominent free posterior flap and crenate upper lip. Garra napata is characterised by its intermediate [type B] disc with very small and poorly developed or even absent posterior flap and smooth surface on the upper lip. Garra sannarensis sp. nov., described from the Blue Nile at Sennar, differs from all other African species by the combination of the following characters: intermediate developed disc (type B), the absence of predorsal scales, scaleless chest, belly and postpelvic area, and 4-4.5 scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin. Garra sp. ‘White Nile’ differs from the other Nilotic species by its long barbels almost reaching each other, when folded medially (vs. Barbels much shorter). Mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI) support that all newly described species and G. vinciguerrae represent distinct lineages within the Main Nile basin. Based on our findings, we provide a key for the Garra species of the Main Nile basin.

Mots-clés: Africa - Cypriniformes - New species - Nile River - Ostariophysi
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