Revision of Phoxinus in France with the description of two new species (Teleostei, Leuciscidae)
French minnows of the genus Phoxinus are revised based on molecular data (COI and 12S rDNA markers), morphological characters and nuptial colouration patterns. The results delineate six groups of populations, which are recognised as species. Phoxinus phoxinus is found in eastern France in the lower and middle Rhine and Seine drainages. Phoxinus bigerri occurs in the Adour drainage and populations from the Lake Geneva basin and the upper Rhine drainage are identified as Phoxinus csikii. Phoxinus dragarum, new species, from the Garonne drainage, is distinguished by its unique nuptial colour pattern (green stripe in Z3 reaching up to the anal fin base and Z4 greenish yellow in male; Z4 green-ochre and black line below in Z5 reaching from the pectoral fin bases to the anal fin base in female), and by an incomplete lateral line generally reaching to a point in front of the anal fin base or just shortly beyond the origin of the last anal fin ray. Phoxinus fayollarum, new species, from the Loire drainage, is distinguished by its unique nuptial colour pattern (green bars in Z3 and Z4, Z4 bright yellow, and belly red in male; green stripe in Z3, Z4 yellow-pinkish, and red spots at the pectoral, pelvic and anal fin base in female). Minnows of the Rhône drainage are identified as Phoxinus septimaniae. We consider Pisciculus varius and Phoxynus montanus as nomben oblitum and Phoxinus septimaniae as nomen protectum, and Leuciscus obtusus as incertae sedis within Leuciscidae.