Les engins et techniques de pêche utilisés dans la baie de Loango, République du Congo, et leurs incidences sur les prises accessoires
Fishing gears and techniques used in the Bay of Loango, Republic of Congo, and their by-catch risks
A study was undertaken to assess the by-catch risk in the different type of fishing gears and techniques commonly used in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Targeted and non-targeted species were listed. Among the non-targeted species, only sea turtles were observed. The study shows that dormant-gillnets with large meshes are more noxious for sea turtles than small meshes dormant gillnets. Small meshes are nevertheless poorly selective and thus can compromise the renewal of the resources. The Congolese law does not allow meshes smaller that 10 cm stretched. According to the literature, other factors can influence the risk of sea turtle by-catch. The nets badly tightened or little vertical increase the risk, the implementation of delusions or phosphorescent or bright elements may reduce the risk. Five of the seven species of sea turtles are present along the coast of the Republic of Congo. Artisanal fishing is one of the main threats for these species. The results of this study will be used to create and experiment a fishing net prototype fulfilling the Congolese regulation requirements and putting together factors and specifications identified as able to reduce the frequency of sea turtle incidental captures while maintaining the commercial species catch rate (fishes and crustaceans).