Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Suriname
Data derived from the literature supplemented by examination of specimens in collections show that 481 species of fish live in the fresh and brackish inland waters of Suriname, with 394 of these restricted to fresh waters. These 481 species represent 16 orders and 64 families. Orders with the largest numbers of freshwater species in the Surinamese inland fish fauna are the Siluriformes (157 species), Characiformes (147 species), Perciformes (40 species), Gymnotiformes (21 species) and Cyprinodontiformes (21 species). At the family level, the Characidae has the greatest number of freshwater species (83 species), followed by the Loricariidae (60 species), the Cichlidae (30 species), the Callichthyidae (23 species), the Heptapteridae (19 species) and the Anostomidae (17 species). Present data indicate that 25 of the species are known solely from locations within Suriname and 89 species solely in Surinamese river systems including the Marowijne/Mana and Corantijn watersheds which in part extend into French Guiana and Guyana, respectively. Of 481 total species, 187 (38.9%) were based on type series that originated within Suriname. Continued descriptions of new species from the inland waters of Suriname demonstrate that the present total most likely distinctly underestimates the species level diversity of the fish fauna. In terms of species per square kilometer, the presently documented richness of the Surinamese freshwater fish fauna is comparable to, or even greater than, the richness of fish faunas of several other tropical South American countries.